What is needed to wire up 2.2kw 220v Spindle and VFD?

PS - if you do need any help with photo or video components of your FAQ, as I set up my system, I would be happy to document it or edit something together for you (I do video editing, among other things) if that would be helpful. Least I can do in exchange for the knowledge.


I’m now almost where Peter was in Feb. (I’ve read Aiph5u’s replies, which help a lot). But I still don’t feel confidant about the connections to make, so I’m also interested in that FAQ plan!

I have the Mechatron HFS ER20 (2.2 kw) and Hitachi VFD. Mechatron supplied “Olflex” cable, which seems intended to run from VFD (the already-cut end) to the spindle (connector attached). I suppose that cable is shielded. But the article by Wetzel (of Southwire) says to “shield both ends”. Mechatron sent one (Schaffer Co) “Line Filter” (is that a shield?) but where does it connect?

They also sent the Braking Resistor. Hitachi’s manual describes connecting that to the leads labeled “+” and “PB”. There is apparently no other connection to make there, it’s a parallel device, not series.

There’s a tech supply store near me, and I’ll ask about a DB-25 Breakout Adapter. But how is that connected? What is the event sequence? Here’s my first guess:

  1. User tells the Onefinity controller to execute the file that he sent from V-Carve as a G-code.
    2a. The Breakout Adapter tells the VFD to power up the spindle and adjust speeds as it continues to instruct.
    2b. The Breakout Adapter tells the Coolant Pump to run.
    2c. The Breakout Adapter tells a shop vacuum to run.
  2. On completion of the G-code file, the Breakout Adapter tells everybody to stop.

Where does an emergency stop enter the sequence?


Hey David,

congratulations, a good choice. Especially purchasing the spindle cable ready-to-use from spindle manufacturer facilitates everything.

So does your VFD manual, ground the shield at both ends. The good thing about you buying a Hitachi WJ200 VFD (which is practically identical to the Omron MX2 VFD), is that you have an excellent manual that has everything in it that you are asking at the moment. That’s a big difference from the cheap VFDs many people buy here.

So if you scroll upwards inside this thread, up to this post, you have the answer on how you ground at both ends. I posted an image there (the second image in that post), which is an excerpt from the manual of the Omron MX2 which also applies to the Hitachi WJ200.

And it also anwers your next question:

No, it’s not a shield, it is an EMI filter. This filter is a “footprint” filter which means, its housing has the same footprint as the VFD itself, so that you can attach the VFD on top of it. Thereby they share an excellent ground connection. How it is attached and wired is shown in the same post above (image 2).

Finally you attach both, the VFD which is attached to the EMI filter, to the mounting plate of your control cabinet.

The thread here contains some relevant citations from the VFD manual. I show them from the Omron MX2 manual, but the Hitachi WJ200 manual is practically identical. So everything that I reported from the Omron MX2 in this forum also applies to the Hitachi WJ200.

This is done by uploading a g-code file (that you have put on a USB thumb drive) via the Onefinity CNC Controller web interface and hitting or clicking the “Run” button in the Auto Tab of the Tabbed section. Unfortunately there is still no hardware button or I/O pin to tell the Onefinity Controller “Run program” or “Pause program”.

2a: Yes, over ModBus serial interface (pins 13 and 14) the Onefinity CNC Controller controls the VFD and starts and stops the spindle and sets its speed.

2b and 2c: This is only done by the CNC Controller via the I/O port if you have a router. If you have a spindle, this is done by the VFD, which has output terminals specifically for this. See your VFD manual.

2d: See 2a.

The 25-pin I/O port of Onefinity and Buildbotics Controller is described here.

Since your VFD manual is excellent and contains everything to lead you to the first test run of your spindle, I suggest that you take it as your weekend lecture. And don’t forget to read the spindle manual too!

This is a topic of its own :slight_smile:

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PS: Even if the content of the Hitachi WJ200 and the Omron MX2 manuals are practically identical, here you can see that the images have a slightly different style, with this WJ200 image which is colored you can better see how the wiring has to be done:

The shield of the shielded cable should be clamped to ground (see picture) or grounded with a grounding cable gland.

Both earth portions of the shielded cable must be connected to the earth point by cable clamps.

– Source: WJ200 Series Inverter Instruction Manual

PS2: Note that the shield cable clamp on the spindle’s end of the cable is already there inside the Phoenix M17 connector of your spindle cable. Here you can see how the cable shield is laid, cut and clamped inside the Phoenix M17 connector to be connected to the metal housing (and that you can be glad that the spindle manufacturer has already done this :slight_smile: ):

– Source: M17 Cable connector - ST-3ES1N8A8005
1624537 → Downloads → package slip

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Excellent. Who makes a suitable metal plate? Is it simply a sheet of steel from a home center?

The majority of the VFD manual concerns configuration codes and settings, but the last part describes the connections for power to VFD and for VFD to spindle. I understand the relation of EMC filter to VFD, and the manual describes a small circuit to the Brake Resistor (and back again).

The manual also refers to optional pieces that (perhaps) I don’t need? These include:

  • Input Reactor
  • DC Reactor
  • Output filter
  • Output Reactor

They also refer to a Converter for RS485 - RS232. Is that already part of the Onefinity controller?
The VFD doesn’t say much about the link to a controller.

Hey David,

The mounting plate is part of a usual control cabinet, as shown and explained here.

I don’t think so. The WJ200 Series Inverter Instruction Manual describes

  • the required stranded wire sizes under 2-16 “Determining Wire and Fuse Sizes” on PDF page 61
  • the ring connectors to be crimped on the wires ends are described on page III / PDF page 4 (see also Assembling cables for VFD and spindle)
  • the screw sizes to be used on the terminals with their required torque on page XIV / PDF page 15.
  • How to wire power to the VFD is described on 2-18 / PDF page 63
  • How to wire the VFD to the spindle is described on 2-22 / PDF page 67
  • Power up test with the mandatory spindle/VFD settings including how to navigate inside the settings with the Keypad from pages 2-23 to 2-36 / PDF pages 68 to 81

Furthermore you find the

  • Example Wiring diagram and description of all Control Logic Signal Terminals from under 4-5 from PDF page 208 on,
  • Using Intelligent Input Terminals under 4-12 from PDF page 215 on
  • Using Intelligent Output Terminals under 4-15 from PDF page 254 on

Of course some basic knowledge of an electrician is required, as explained before, e.g. how to strip a wire or how to crimp a wire end. It is a manual, not a howto for DIY. If you do this for the first time, you could try to search the web for acquiring basic knowledge.

Their purpose is described on page 2-4 / PDF page 49 (or in this other posting above).

Did you get the WJ200 VFD from Mechatron too? If so, then I assume they already made the mandatory settings to match the spindle.

Does the spindle cable from Mechatron already have the ring connectors crimped to it, at the end towards VFD? (I make my spindle cables myself, so I don’t know if they do this)

Thanks, I’ll look over that manual too.
Mine isn’t a WJ200 series. It’s an 0130 SFE. There are several dozen pages regarding configuration of the machine, and a tenth as much on very specific wiring instructions.

Hey David,

ah okay, you took a Hitachi S1 (standard series). In the Hitachi S1 Series Basic Guide you find nearly the same information as mentioned above, but arranged differently. You find e.g. Standard wiring of main circuit under 4.3, Standard wiring of control circuit under 4.4, and Recommended cable sizes under 12.4.1 and 12.4.2 and Optional peripheral accessories under 12.

Until now I did not know anyone with this VFD, and I think you’re the first in this forum. What did you pay for it?

4.3 is clear.
4.4 isn’t clear, but maybe that’s where the Onefinity Controller documents come in? If those instructions refer to labels that are similar to 4.4, then it all will make sense.

“Basic” operation instructions (Chap 5, p. 38-91) are programming steps. It appears that the VFD has to be given instructions on the spindle’s parameters (power, speed, V, A. At the beginning, the speed control has to be set to either SVC or V/F. SVC is used “unless mediocre” performance is required. I assume SVC is preferred, and that requires “Motor Parameter Autotuning”. There are choices to make (Rotary or two kinds of Static Autotuning). That’s just at the start…as I continue, I imagine I’ll have many more options to select, about which I’m ignorant.

Hey David,

I took a closer look at the manual for your Hitachi S1. The options you can find in a VFD with SVC are all somehow comparable to those of other manufacturers, and with a little familiarization you can certainly set everything as desired, but the options of the Hitachi S1 are completely different in the numbering from those of the Hitachi WJ200 / Omron MX2. So I was wondering if the Hitachi S1 is supported by the Onefinity CNC controller. A look at the source code says, no. But the Buildbotics controller, from which the Onefinity controller was forked a longer time ago, has evolved quite a bit and includes support for other VFDs that the Onefinity controller unfortunately does not yet support. And there I found the parameters and the ModBus commands that match your VFD. But surprisingly I didn’t find them under ‘Hitachi S1’, but these settings are for the VFD ‘Galt G200’. It seems that its options and its ModBus addresses and instructions are identical to those of your Hitachi S1. See here, the manufacturer’s page for the Galt G200 here, and here is the Galt G200 Series Manual (PDF). If you compare it to your Hitachi S1 Series Basic Guide (PDF), well then it seems that they are practically identical, similarly to how Hitachi WJ200 and Omron MX2 are identical.

You will of course ask, can support for this VFD be backported from Buildbotics firmware to Onefinity firmware? Sure, that should not be too difficult. I often make diffs of the two codebases to see how much work it would be to backport something, and this, compared to what effort it would make to backport other new features, would be rather simple. Question is if Onefinity wants to do that themselves. The other day someone asked for support for Fuling VFD, which is the same situation: The support is there upstream in the recent Buildbotics version, but not yet in the Onefinity firmware. I had a look at the codebase and yes, there is yet no code for the “freq-scaled-set” parameter in the Onefinity codebase, but it is present in the recent Buildbotics codebase.

What you can do easily and at once on your Onefinity Controller is create a custom ModBus VFD in the Tool Configuration Tab. For this we simply look a the code from the buildbotics codebase and take the settings from there:

In buildbotics-firmware/v1.0.4/bbctrl-firmware-master/src/avr/src/vfd_spindle.c we find this:

const vfd_reg_t galt_g200_regs[] PROGMEM = {
  {REG_MAX_FREQ_READ,    0x0003, 0}, // Read max operating frequency in 0.01Hz
  {REG_FREQ_SET,         0x2001, 0}, // Set frequency in 0.01Hz
  {REG_FREQ_READ,        0x3000, 0}, // Read frequency with 0.01Hz
  {REG_FWD_WRITE,        0x2000, 1}, // Run forward
  {REG_REV_WRITE,        0x2000, 2}, // Run reverse
  {REG_STOP_WRITE,       0x2000, 5}, // Stop
  {REG_STATUS_READ,      0x2100, 0}, // Read status
  {REG_DISCONNECT_WRITE, 0x2000, 5}, // Stop on disconnect

which translates to the following settings:

Command Address Value Comment
max-freq-read 3 0 Read max operating frequency in 0.01Hz
freq-set 8193 0 Set frequency in 0.01Hz
freq-read 12288 0 Read frequency with 0.01Hz
fwd-write 8192 1 Run forward
rev-write 8192 2 Run reverse
stop-write 8192 5 Stop
status-read 8448 0 Read status
disconnect-write 8192 5 Stop on disconnect

and then we take this from buildbotics-firmware/v1.0.4/bbctrl-firmware-master/src/pug/templates/settings-tool.pug :

      .notes(v-if="tool_type.startsWith('GALT G200')")
        h2 Notes
        p Set the following using the VFD's front panel.
            th Address
            th Value
            th Meaning
            th Description
            td.reg-addr P00.01
            td.reg-value 2
            td MODBUS control
            td Run command channel
            td.reg-addr P00.06
            td.reg-value 8
            td Frequency set by MODBUS
            td Frequency command selection
            td.reg-addr P14.00
            td.reg-value 1
            td Drive ID
            td Must match #[tt bus-id] above
            td.reg-addr P14.01
            td.reg-value 3
            td 9600 BAUD rate
            td Must match #[tt baud] above
            td.reg-addr P14.02
            td.reg-value 3
            td No parity, 8 data bits, 2 stop bits, RTU mode
            td Communication mode
          | Other settings according to the
            target="_blank") Galt G200 VFD manual

which translates to these additional comments:


Set the following using the VFD's front panel.

Address Value Meaning Description
P00.01 2 MODBUS control Run command channel
P00.06 8 Frequency set by MODBUS Frequency command selection
P14.00 1 Drive ID Must match #[tt bus-id] above
P14.01 3 9600 BAUD rate Must match #[tt baud] above
P14.02 3 No parity, 8 data bits, 2 stop bits, RTU mode Communication mode

Other settings according to the Galt G200 VFD manual

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Hey David,

On the wiring diagram of the control circuit, you see what you can attach to your VFD as input to be controlled or signaled by something, or to act as an output for controlling or signaling something. Also you find the two pins 485+ and 485- there, to which you attach pins 13 and 14 of the Onefinity’s 25-pin I/O port, this is the ModBus serial connection that allows the Onefinity Controller to talk with your VFD.

With the usual functionality that a VFD offers, you can do different things, one important thing that you already mentioned would be to e.g. switch your spindle coolant pump and dust collector on as soon as the spindle runs. This is done by attaching a relay to an open collector or optical coupler output of the VFD, which would be terminals Y1 and COM here, for this you need a small 24 V power supply like the Meanwell MDR or similar which attaches to a DIN rail that you usually have in your control cabinet. You may wonder if you can also use the Relay Outputs RO1A–RO1C for this, but you must consider the specifications of these outputs. These are often internal solid state relays which (unlike mechanical relays) require a relatively high current of at least 50–100 mA to be present by the load, otherwise they do not hold their state safely, on the other hand with 3 A these RO1A-C outputs are not rated high enough to switch your dust collector directly, so you would need an external relay anyway. For the spindle coolant pump and the dust collector, I use Omron G4A relays, but these are for being soldered into a pcb, you will better find some medium-current (30 A) 24 V relay for DIN rail which require no soldering. You could also use a consumer relay like this which also requires no soldering either. However since the open collector / optical coupler output of the VFD by principle does not provide any power, you need the small 24 V power supply anyway to drive relays, even if this consumer relay only needs less than 5 mA to be switched.


I called the fellow who runs Buildbotics. He didn’t say that he was upset with Onefinity, but I got that sense. He used open-source information from Linux to develop a controller, and that became Onefinity’s controller. He still sells Buildbotics controllers, and has no incentive to help make the Onefinity controller succeed.

His devices have some small innovations that were added after the ancestry of these machines divided. It would cost about $600 to buy a Buildbotics controller and the touch-screen. That would also buy support for the electronics (which still puzzle me). To recap my situation: Mechatron sold me their spindle and a Hitachi S1-series VFD. Mechatron says they already input their spindle’s parameters in the new VFD, but (of course) nothing related to the Onefinity controller has been input.

You pointed out that Onefinity doesn’t support any VFD that matches my Hitachi series, leaving two options: 1. Buy a Buildbotics controller or 2. Change the “firmware” in the Onefinity controller to match the settings to those of a Galt 200 VFD. Option 2 scares me, but Option 1 costs money that I could have saved through better research (embarrassment as well as cost).

My one other asset might be the relative of a relative (“Todd”) who is a “Controls Technician”. When I described a bit of what I’m trying to do, he said, “I never worked with the machines you described, but it sounds like exactly what I do for a living”. (A tip if others on the forum want a work title for people who actually understand this stuff, hoping to buy their services).

So I think I’ll ask Todd to use my Hitachi manual and your post (here) to decide whether the solution is clear. If it isn’t, I’ll buy a Buildbotics controller and the user-support it comes with.

Hey David,

as I tried to explain above, to support your Hitachi S1 VFD on your Onefinity Controller, you just need to create a custom ModBus VFD in the Tool Configuration Tab. You insert these settings:

Command Address Value Comment
max-freq-read 3 0 Read max operating frequency in 0.01Hz
freq-set 8193 0 Set frequency in 0.01Hz
freq-read 12288 0 Read frequency with 0.01Hz
fwd-write 8192 1 Run forward
rev-write 8192 2 Run reverse
stop-write 8192 5 Stop
status-read 8448 0 Read status
disconnect-write 8192 5 Stop on disconnect

and then you check that in your VFD, the settings match the following:


Set the following using the VFD's front panel.

Address Value Meaning Description
P00.01 2 MODBUS control Run command channel
P00.06 8 Frequency set by MODBUS Frequency command selection
P14.00 1 Drive ID Must match #[tt bus-id] above
P14.01 3 9600 BAUD rate Must match #[tt baud] above
P14.02 3 No parity, 8 data bits, 2 stop bits, RTU mode Communication mode

Other settings according to the Galt G200 VFD manual

and you should be done. After having wired the pin “485+” on your VFD to pin 13 on the Onefinity 25-pin I/O port and pin “485-” to pin 14 using a twisted pair cable, you should get an “OK” on the “ModBus status” field.

Explanation: Every VFD that supports ModBus communication protocol should have a chapter in its technical documentation that describes the addresses and data that it uses to receive commands from the CNC controller over the serial line or to report its condition or errors back in the other direction. In your VFD manual, you find them under “Chapter 9 Communication protocol”. Every VFD should have such a description. Unfortunately, they are not standardized. But with this documentation, you can tell the Onefinity Controller which code is used for let the spindle run, let it stop, set the speed, report the speed, etc., by entering the values found in the VFD documentation. The values in the table I gave you above are the values your VFD uses, they were just translated from hexadecimal to decimal. If you enter them the way it is described under Custom ModBus VFD, your Onefinity Controller will be able to communicate with your VFD.

This is the advantage when buying the VFD from the spindle manufacturer.

This is not necessary since it is the other way around: You don’t tell the VFD about the Onefinity, but you tell the Onefinity about the VFD. You have to tell the Onefinity Controller the ModBus addresses that the VFD uses, and this is what I provided you with the values in the table above.

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The 1F has arrived, so it’s time to deploy all this great advice. Yet I hope for more:

  1. Mechatron’s package included an EMC line filter, which has three “In” connections and two “Out”:
  • In: L1, N and a metal post (ground).
    The 220 service in my wall has four wires. Black, red, white and ground. The cords I see on YouTube have only three (Black, white, green). I assume that folks cut off the female end of an extension cord, and secure B-W-G to L1, N and the post (respectively).
  • Out: Y-connectors on short wires.
    These connect to the VFD posts, L and N. But what about that ground? Do I run a continuation of the “In” ground to the VFD ground? Secure both devices to the same (metal) box? (The mounting holes of the two devices don’t align with each other).
  1. Mechatron’s “Quick Start Guide” also describes a cable clamp for the “motor cables”. The image seems to show one wire within a non-metallic coat, surrounded by a web of fine metal (shield). They say to use an EMC clamp “close to the inverter”. But the purchase included a cable to the motor composed of four wires, each with its proper connection within the VFD. Where is this cable clamp intended to go?

  2. The Mechatron Quick Start Manual shows a Hitachi S1 VFD, but the page is labeled, “Frequency Inverter Omron MX2”. Aiph5u noted the ModBus addresses for the S1 and Omron differ. Maybe that doesn’t matter in the wiring set-up?

  3. Mechatron’s manual for connecting to the CNC controller describes nine links:
    S1, S2, COM, AI2, R01B, R02C, H1, H2 and +24V
    It doesn’t refer to the two RS485 connections that (I thought) are the communication lines. Is Mechatron’s R01B (Digital Input) also called “RS485-”? Is Mechatron’s S1 or S2 (both Digital Output) also called “RS485+”? Or is AI2 (Analog output) actually the RS485 connection?

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Hey David,

I assume that you received a VFD for single-phase input and for the 200 V voltage class. Furthermore I assume that you are in North America which would mean you probably have Split-phase electricity, which means 120 V between one hot and neutral, and 240 V between two hots of different phases. Therefore you have to connect the both inputs L1 and N of your VFD to two hots of your wall box, and ground to ground. Note that you do not connect anything to your neutral, I repeat nothing, since you want to use your 240 V and not your 120 V.

As for identifying the wire colors, here you see the international colcors and those common in North America:

– Source: Electrical wiring # Colour coding of wiring by region – Wikipedia

Okay when we lookup in the table above, so in the USA:

Black is Hot (Phase 1)
Red is Hot (Phase 2)
White is Neutral, and
Green is Ground.

So what you want here, is to connect a single-phase VFD to a single phase 240 V power source which you find on your two hots of different phases. Therefore you wire your

Black (Hot1) ----> L1 on VFD,
Red (Hot2) ----> N on VFD (sic!),
White (Neutral) to nothing (important, since you don’t want any 120 V here), and finally
Ground ----> Ground on VFD/EMI filter.

Selecting wire and fuse size

Now for choosing the wire strength. The wire is always dimensionated according to the current. If you want to know what current your VFD will draw, you take a look at the VFDs nameplate, and look into the VFD manual (PDF):


Image 1: Nameplate of the Hitachi VFD model S1-00130SFE: 24 A input in normal duty (ND) mode.


Image 2: Excerpt from the Hitachi S1 manual: For model S1-00130SFE: 24 A input in normal duty (ND) mode.

If you think, why is that so high, note that if you have a VFD with single phase input (which is necessarily the case here if you have Split-phase electricity), then all the power has to be provided over the single phase, which means it draws more than double the current on one input wire than it would if you had a VFD which receives power over a three-phase input. Therefore usually you would always prefer a VFD for three-phase electricity (that’s what is common here in Europe), since you would not need such thick wires and such a strong fuse, but unfortunatly three-phase electricity is rare in North America.

Now for wire and fuse size. I noticed you don’t have a table for the wire sizes in your VFD manual. But you can take the table I provided above in this thread (search for 200 V class, Single phase input, CT mode, 2.2 kW motor output):

So for your 2.2 kW 200 V class VFD with single input, which draws up to 24 A (=5.7 kVA) input in normal duty (ND) mode (as shown from your VFD manual and on your VFD nameplate), you would need a three-wire (2+PE) 10 AWG cable.

I don’t know what is shown on youtube but you need a three-wire (2+PE) 10 AWG cable as described above.

I don’t know if you want to connect your VFD installation directly to your wall box or to a plug, but in the latter case the correct plug/socket would be NEMA 6-30 or NEMA 14-30 in the USA.

How to attach the EMI filter and the VFD to the power is already answered above.

Well if the mounting holes of the EMI filter and of the VFD don’t align, then Mechatron probably went out of Hitachi WJ200 and Omron MX2 (which exactly match to be mounted on top of the EMI filter). At the time I bought my spindle, they sold the Omron MX2 with it, but due to the worldwide suppliers problem, many VFDs ceased to be available. But that does not matter, you don’t forcibly have to mount the VFD on top of the EMI filter, you secure both the EMI filter and the VFD to the mounting plate of your control cabinet side by side, as Mechatron does too by the way, as shown here:

Regarding the shielded spindle cable, its shield should be clamped to ground (see picture below) or grounded with a grounding cable gland.

Where the four wires have to go should be clear:


The four wires of your shielded spindle cable go to U,V,W and PE (⏚, ground) of your VFD, and the shield of the shielded spindle cable should be clamped to ground (see picture) or grounded with a grounding cable gland.

You should have one central grounding point, which usually is on the mounting plate of your control cabinet. You attach both, the VFD and the EMI filter, on this mounting plate, and the shield of the spindle cable somewhere onto this mounting plate too, near to the VFD. See the image below.

Don’t you have access to the shielding of the spindle cable? As I make my own cables, I don’t know how the cables Mechatron manufactures exactly look like. Can you provide a photo of the end that goes toward VFD?

No, it doesn’t matter.

To connect your Hitachi S1 VFD to the Onefinity CNC Controller, you just need to connect

The RS-485 port on your VFD is located here:

– Source: Hitachi S1 Series Basic Guide (PDF)

The connections you listed are some digital and analog control lines witch which you can control the VFD in case your CNC controller has no RS-485 / ModBus interface, e.g. as with Masso controllers. But if your CNC controller has a RS-485 / ModBus interface (which is the case with Buildbotics and Onefinity controllers), you need nothing else to let it control the VFD than these two wires. The Onefinity Controller will also stop the spindle over RS-485/ModBus when entering “estopped” mode.

Another topic would be automatic dust collector and coolant pump switching, which I tried to summarize here

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Aiph5u gives great help and references. I just ran across a video for those of us who are ‘visual learners’:

How to Wire a VFD | VFDs.com

I put my 1F stand on casters so I can rotate it for larger projects. That calls for move-able electrical connections. I’m thinking that if my wall box (with 220v power) has a 3-prong outlet, I’ll have the required ground and two “hot” leads. The common ones are 10-30r, but that’s rated for 30A and the manual calls for a 40A breaker. There are also 10-50P. Is my plan reasonable? Is it wisest to use an outlet rated higher than the breaker?

Out of curiosity, what was the investment for the Mechatron spindle? I’ve sent an RFQ to them, but haven’t heard back yet.

The spindle cost 816 Euros. Lately, the exchange rate with USD has been better (for people who hold USD) than for the last 20 years. That said, the difference is about 10% from what it was a few years ago. It’s a big deal to banks and the government, but by no means a ‘steal’ for tourists and woodworkers.

But there are other costs. The Hitachi S1 VFD cost 590 Euro, the cooling system cost 700 Euro. There are various other items (50-100 Euro) such as cable, line filter, collets, etc. There’s also a tariff (paid to the US) of about $200. All in, with the options I chose, the cost was 2800 Euros. If you know electronics, the same VFD is advertised for much less on line. Mechatron paired it with their spindle, which an experienced user could do for themselves.

I was slow to realize how much other buyers of spindles know about the required electronics (and I don’t). I’m now sourcing a console to house the parts that need protection from dust, as well as relays and power units (because I want a vacuum and the cooling pump to turn on when the spindle does). Aiph5u has been great, but I’m so new to the topic that my questions are wearing out the patience of these knowledgeable folks. On a lucky note, I found a relative of an in-law who is a “Controls Technician”. That’s apparently the specific job title of people who make machinery work for businesses. Were it not for him, I’d probably look for a Controls Technician to pay for consulting on this small job.

When I start asking why I dove so deeply into a pool like this, I remember that my CNC interest is in making clock dials (brass) for clocks. That task really can’t be done by a router. Local pro shops want to charge me $300 each for a dial.

The Mechatron company is fairly small. You might try sending an email to the attention of “Anna Orth”. She handled the purchase for me.


Hey David,

if you have NEMA 10 outlets, you have 120 V and 240 V (hot1, hot2, and neutral), but no ground, that’s why they are deprecated. Neutral is not a replacement for Protective Earth (ground)!

That’s why I said above:

If you have a certified electrician there in the U.S., that would be the best, he can safely advise you on which socket to use best. I am only familiar with the regulations and sockets in the EU!

The relevant information is what we have seen in the post above: A VFD with single-phase 200 V class input which draws 24 A in ND mode and 30 A in LD mode, and as you already reported, it recommends a 40 A fuse for single-phase input based on “The capacity of the breaker needs to be 1.5 to 2 times the rated current of the inverter.”

do not worry, they are not, but I have a lot to do at the moment and not much time for the forum. :slight_smile:


Hey all,

aw, the link in the post above ceased to work. They changed the URL again:

Here is the current and working URL to this highly recommended document:

Begin with the End in Mind — Proper VFD Cable Termination

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