220v vs. 110v Spindle?

I’m considering upgrading to an 80mm spindle. It looks like I have options between 220v and 110 v. Is there any advantage to 220? I can do the wiring if there is a good reason to but I hate to go to that trouble if it really doesn’t make any difference.

Just a reminder to those who go the spindle route, Onefinity will not provide any technical support and does not support spindles. They are a ‘use at your own risk’ item.

The main reason in moving to an 80mm mount would be to use a 2.2kw spindle which if you do the math on a 110v circuit at max load would consume all available current from a 20A circuit. It is highly unlikely you will draw max load with the spindle, however it is possible. A 2.2kW spindle would roughly equate to a 3HP router and for comparison I own a “5 HP” nameplate compressor that runs fine on a 20A 110v circuit. All that being said, If you have the ability to install and utilize 220v I would.

That’s exactly what I was hoping to learn, thank you!

The 65mm mount is not set up for some spindles (the spindle will hit the stepper motor) so switching to the 80mm has the advantage that it was designed for a spindle. Unless you are going to use large bits the 2.2kW spindle really isn’t going to buy you much. A 1.5kW spindle most likely is all you will need and will run much better on 120v than a 2.2kW would. I would suggest you think about what you would like to do with the 1F so you can figure out what bits you will want to use and then decide what size (HP) spindle would work. Think about this. Most people are using a Makita trim router that has half the power of a 1.5kW spindle.

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There are 2 different voltages to pay attention to. Most spindles are 220v - the 3-phase circuit between the VFD and the spindle is at 220v. I have seen some 110v spindles, but 220v is more common The voltage between the wall outlet and your VFD can be a different voltage - as long as you get a VFD that supports the configuration.

I started out with running 110v to the VFD, and then a 220v 800w spindle behind the VFD. Now, I have 220v on either side of the VFD, and a 2.2kw 220v spindle.

A lower voltage will mean a higher current draw for the same power output. If you’re going up to the 80mm size, you can find both 2.2kw and 1.5kw spindles in that size. For a 2.2kw spindle, I really think 220v to the VFD makes the most sense - you would be very close to the max amp rating on your circuit if you stayed at 110v.

As long as you match the input voltage to the VFD’s capabilities, and supply enough current for the load, you won’t be able to tell the difference in how the spindle performs.

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Haven’t seen an update to this post in a while so here goes: I don’t think you will be wrong with either spindle 220 or 110 (80mm). While you may be able to get a little more out of the 220 very rarely if ever will the difference be noticed. My thought was with the newer accessories from @OnefinityCNC specifically the rolling folding QCW table, if I wanted to take my CNC to a job site in lieu of my Shaper Origin I could plug it up elsewhere using a common 110V outlet. I know, I know who would travel with their CNC; there could be a time one would be displaced from shop or wanting to run a generator at a trade show, rearrange the shop, etc etc. I don’t know but for me the tradeoff in power was worth the flexibility and adaptability to take the show on the road thus I choose the 110V 1.5kw spindle.

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Hey Dkenloc,

the point in 110 V vs. 220 V is not the performance, but the current draw. My 220 V 2.2 kW spindle/VFD draws up to 24 A, the recommended fuse is 30 A. With half the voltage, at 110 V, it would draw rated max. 48 A, the recommended fuse would be even higher. If you want to go with such a spindle to a job outside, you got to inform the people there they need their own power plant. I have never heard of 48 A 110 V circuits in North America, at least not in domestic areas. Imagine the wire gauge you would need to carry 48 A. That’s why for spindles over 1 kW, you usually use 220 V because then the current draw is only the half then (and the required wire gauge too).

The fact that 2.2 kW spindle/VFD kits for 110 V are sold is due to the fact that they fool the buyer about the REAL current draw of such a spindle/VFD. See Incorrect or missing data on cheap chinese VFDs and spindles.

The input current rating should be on the nameplate and the manual of the VFD. If it is lacking, I would not buy it. It’s not serious then.

Please don’t mix spindle input current with VFD input current. The spindle input current is per phase and a spindle runs three of them at the same time, each shifted by 120°, and also it does not take into account the efficiency loss of the VFD. Only the VFD input current rating on nameplate and in the manual of the VFD is meaningful if you want to connect it to a supply circuit.

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I was saying I went with the 110V over the 220. Understanding all you just stated the draw, performance, or whatever reason someone chose to go with the 220, I was giving another perspective on why a 1.5kw spindle (110V) could be worth the tradeoff of draw, performance, or whatever other reasons one may utilize to make a decision between 110 vs 220.
I can see how you read my post as I choose the 220V, I guess that should read, “While someone may be able to get a little more out of the 220V.” In summary I have the 110V 1.5kw just in case I wanted to move it elsewhere.

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Hey Dkenloc,

you mean, move it to somewhere where there is 110 V but no 220 V?

But if your VFD is for 1.5 kW spindle, are you confident that you find 110 V 30 A circuits everywhere?

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Am I missing something? This is from the @PwnCNC website of the spindle I purchased:
What you’ll need to power your 1.5kw 110v Spindle System
It is possible to use a 15A-110v circuit, but it needs to be a dedicated circuit used exclusively for your VFD/Spindle.
What you’ll need to power your 1.5kw 110v Spindle System - PwnCNC

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We fully support our spindles for customers and all too often we’re supporting the controller it’s installed onto as well. Identifying where an issue is can be difficult. So if you believe it’s a machine issue, their general recommendation is to remove the spindle from the equation and continue to seek assistance. If you believe it’s a spindle issue, we are here to help via support@pwncnc.com or our forums.

I don’t believe you’re missing anything. Our 1.5kw 110v spindles pull 12 amps of power. There’s an 80% rule we’ve heard all too often that says you shouldn’t use the maximum that a circuit can handle due to overheating the wires or the risk of causing long-term damage. Thus… a 12amp vfd/spindle is perfectly safe to use on a standard 110v 15amp circuit for the long term if it’s dedicated.
If you plug anything else into that same circuit though, you’ll want to make sure it’s something super small like a phone charger or something drawing <3amps of power.

Of course a 1.5kw 110v spindle/vfd does not draw 12amps upon turning it on nor does it pull it the entire time it’s plugged in. But during operation it may ramp up to 12amp pull if it runs into issues with operation like running at 24k rpms, hitting dense material and other factors.

There are most definitely subtilties to this, but our general rule of thumb is if you’re using a 1.5kw 110v 12amp spindle, that you dedicate or try to dedicate a 110v 15amp circuit to it.

Side note… in my shop i love to have 110v 20amp circuits, and in such case powering the machine and 1.5kw spindle is perfectly fine off the same circuit.
If i were to also try to put my shopvac, air compressor, or other tool on there… if i tried to use them while i was using the spindle/machine… my circuit breaker pops as i start to tax the spindle through denser material.
This is very similar to my sawstop on a 110v 15amp circuit. If i hit a knot while sawing, the breaker will pop. I’ve had to spend the money to get a 110v 20amp circuit setup for it too.

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Does that mean if we put a spindle on our machine that we lose support (void the warranty of the machine as a whole?)

Hey Daniel,

I had a look at the manual of the VFD you offer. It belongs to those which lack the input current rating on the nameplate, but I found the input rating in the manual. Unfortunately, the manual’s model table only shows the 220 V models. For a 1.5 kW spindle, it says a max. rated input current of the VFD of 15.7 A.

For 110 V, this would be the double current, so 31.4 A, which is the normal value for a 110 V VFD with single-phase input for 1.5 kW spindle.